Tag: "internet of things"

New Generation Of Cyber Security Leaders Needed

“As technology continues to evolve at lightning speed, redefining the way we live and work, it’s becoming increasingly difficult to imagine functioning without it.

Unfortunately, that reliance on technology to keep us connected has also made us more vulnerable to cyberattacks and threats that undermine the ability to keep our data safe.

Our future online safety depends on investing in a work force that understands how to protect us online.”

full story

Cyber Security Basics

Many people think that cyber security only applies to big companies and governments, and that it should like to be dealt with by the IT guys.

Anyone who owns a computer, who works with a computer or who has a smart phone needs to be aware of some pretty basic rules about cyber security, both for their own sake and for anyone they work with or for.

Cyber security is about understanding the risk of cyber crime, and doing whatever you can to minimise the risk, and then when necessary insure against what ever potential risk is left.

Cyber Crime

The nature of cyber crime is a rapidly evolving one, and can cover a wide area. At one level it is about criminals trying to obtain money or other benefits either by installing some type of ransom ware on a computer or a system, and demanding payment for releasing encrypted files, or by some other type of blackmail.

On the other hand cybercrime can be about online bullying, where there may be no financial element involved, but where the emotional and personal distress can often be enormous.

Cyber crime can also  be connected to malicious software, known as malware, and viruses, which do not have any specific financial target, but which are designed to disrupt and in some cases destroy data or computer systems on a particular network.


The old adage that prevention is better than cure  is an absolute truism when talking about cyber security. Perhaps the number one priority for all types of cyber security is to make sure that all your data is always backed up, ideally more than once, to different locations.

Backups can either be by way of  cloud computing, memory sticks or to another network, but they are crucial to restore the integrity of the system in the event of any cyber attack. Nowadays it is dead easy to automate backups and so there is no excuse really not to do it.

The same goes for making sure that your computer operating system is up-to-date, and any applications or software that you use is running the latest version.

Also that any browser you use is up to date as well. If you are running it as part of a network, then it is also important that all firewalls and anti-virus and anti-malware software is in place and up-to-date.

Cyber Security basics are in many ways common sense.

A lot of the incidents that relate to cyber security happen because very basic rules are just not always followed. Simple things like not opening email attachments unless you know who they are from is a classic example.

Much of the damage done to computer systems and networks is done from some things like opening attachments that shouldn’t be opened, letting viruses and malware into the system, not changing passwords regularly enough and an increasing problem, is people using their own mobile devices at work on a company network.

Mobile Cyber Security

Smart phones seemed to have escaped the focus of cyber security, which has largely been on desktop computers and networks.

However the risk to smart phones is certainly ever present, and is likely to increase it to me as smart phones become much more of a digital hub for people’s lives, both in their own home, in their car and at work as well.

The same principles apply to mobile cyber security as to the desktop and network security.

Make sure the operating system is up-to-date, make sure the browser is up-to-date, and do not open email attachments unless you are certainly know who they are from.

Also with smart phones it is really important to be sure that the Wi-Fi network your are using is secure, especially if you are using the phone for things like online banking.

Some public Wi-Fi networks  are notoriously unsafe, and should be used with great caution.

Smart Home – Internet of Things

The relentless drive of the Internet of things has received a major boost in recent years with Amazon, Google and Apple all producing their own smart home hubs.

These are designed to control all the wirelessly connected devices in the home, of which there are an increasing number. The idea of a smart home has been around for some time, and is gradually becoming a reality whether people like it or not.

An increasing number of devices and products, from washing machines to refrigerators to televisions have wireless internet capability, and can talk to other devices electronically as well as connect to the Internet.

There are huge cyber security risks involved in this, as many devices either do not have proper security safeguards built in, or are out of date by the time they arrive in the home.

The issue of cyber security in the home, especially in the Smart home, is rapidly becoming an issue.

The most important things to do to check that any devices that to have wireless capability had the latest software and security updates from the manufacturer installed, that your home Wi-Fi network is secure, and check online with any product you buy to see if there are any problems regarding security that other people may be reporting.

Cyber Security Governance

The idea of some type of governnance is largely a corporate one, but the principle applies to anyone who runs any type of business or organisation of any size, and can also be adapted very easily to anyone’s home or domestic environment.

The principle of cyber security governance is that a business or organisation of any size has a dedicated risk management plan and system for making sure that cyber security is as strong as it can possibly be within the organisation.

This in part is about policies and procedures, but is also about systems and people as well.

Firstly it is important to have one person at board level or equivalent  whose sole responsibility or whose major responsibility is cyber security. They must be accountable to the organisation, and have the authority to make decisions and spend money when necessary.

The structure should be similar to that of many companies who have a risk management system in place.

The individual concerned needs to develop policies and procedures for making sure that the integrity of the network system is always as secure as it can be, whether it is done in-house or by way of outside contractors, and that people who work within the business or organisation are also fully aware of cyber security risks, and what can be done to minimise these risks.

This can involve training, as well as online monitoring of activity that may be deemed inappropriate in a workplace, and making sure some type of cyber insurance policy is in place that ideally includes an incident management team which can oversee the practical resolution of any data breach or cybercrime, and the restoration of the integrity of any compromised computer or IT system.




The Internet of Things – What is it?

The Internet of things is a collective term for all the various devices, products and wearables that can connect to each other, and to the Internet as well.

Whilst the idea of devices talking to each other, electronically, has been around for some time, the reason the Internet of Things has become a huge concept in more recent times is because of the sheer volume of devices and products that can access the Internet.

Various experts predict growth in the market of the Internet of things to be so huge over  the next 5/10 years that it is almost impossible to put it into any sort of context.

What is undoubtedly true is that there is a relentless drive by manufacturers of every single product to make sure that they are able to connect their device wirelessly to the Internet.

This has huge  implications, not only for the nature of society and how it will change, but for people’s privacy, the control of the information that pertains to their life and their security and well-being.

Moral questions aside, perhaps the most potent issue is that of cyber security and cyber insurance.

Given that in a  few years time virtually everything we own, drive and wear is likely to be connected to the internet wether we like it is or not, the potential risks in terms of some type of cyber attack are enormous, and there are significant implications for people’s safety, both physically and emotionally and financially.

How these risks are managed and understood, both by way of minimising them and insuring against them is a major challenge that has yet to be clearly addressed.

Internet of Things and Smart Homes.

When people think of the internet of things they normally think of smart homes and smart home devices. This is largely because most examples of the Internet of things have tended to paint a picture of how wireless devices will make people’s lives easier by automating normal everyday functions, whether it be driving home from work, fixing the evening meal, automating lights and music in the home, controlling heating levels etc.

Whether normal people actually find the idea of this attractive or not is debatable, but what is clear that virtually all current devices and products that are now being built and produced for the home will contain internet capability.

This is true whether it be a smart television, a baby alarm, a refrigerator or a washing machine. What is also likely is that these devices will be switched on by default, and it is not clear yet whether there will be any capability for turning them off so you are not wirelessly collected.

There is also a fair amount of anecdotal evidence that a lot of major companies are pushing out products that have internet capability with a speed that is more about getting to market quickly and riding on the wave of popularity that the internet of things seems to be generating, than it is about really understanding the security  implications of what they are doing.

What’s this means is that there may be many products that are reaching market that has not been fully tested or manufactured with security in mind, and may need continual software updates or patches to make sure they are secure.

The risk of a cyber attack in a smart home mirrors many of the current risks that a business or organisation will face in its current day-to-day operations.

The dangers inherent in smart hones are not so much that someone’s refrigerator is at risk of attack, but that someone can access a person’s home network through one of these devices, such as a baby alarm or a washing machine, and through that gain access to the  individual or families private data.


When people talk about the Internet of things they are also talking about wearables. These can currently only be best thought of as smart watches and fit bit devices. The last couple of years show that  major tech companies have been experimenting with different types of wearables, such as glasses, watches and even tattoos as a way of connecting people to the Internet by things that are a part of their body or apparel.

What is really important to realise here is the principle. That tech companies wants to find at least one wearable that people feel comfortable having on them at all times that can access the internet.

Obviously from a tech company’s point of view it is preferable to have more than one, but one will do. For this reason major tech companies will happily experiment with different types of wearables until they find one that really hits the market.

The implications for wearables are pretty much the same as for those of a smart home.

The fact that an individual will have something connected to their body that is internet accessible means that they are much more at risk of a cyber attack, with all the security implications already mentioned.

Wearables are not simply about phones and glasses.

There is a lot of anecdotal evidence that manufacturers of clothes, shoes, shirts etc are looking at ways of inserting internet access and internet products, probably by way of some type of barcode, that would give them information about individual and their shopping habits.

There is also anecdotal evidence of manufacturers of  pillows and bed clothing doing the same thing, again under the pretext of collecting information about how an individual sleeps and  various sleep patterns.

Often, once people understand the implications of how their life will be fully monitored 24 seven via access to the Internet, there is some shift towards a fight against it in terms of privacy and control of their data.

Whilst both these areas are hugely important, they sometimes skew perhaps an even greater need for the understanding of cyber security and cyber insurance to minimise and manage these risks with some degree of safety.

Internet of Things and Autos

In the space of only a few years, most manufacturers of cars and trucks are talking about and developing autonomous vehicles.. No one really seems to be asking the question why, there is a general assumption, often untested, that it is about safety, and that somehow self driving cars and trucks are safer than those with a human behind the wheel.

It is worth going back to the original Google car that was the first self driving vehicle.

That had nothing to do with safety at all. Google’s first car, that resembled more of the old bubble car, was designed with one particular aim in mind. It saw the commuter market, particularly in the West Coast, where people would sit in their cars in gridlocked traffic for approximately fours a day, two hours each way, doing nothing other than look at the scenery around them.

Google saw these cars as opportunities to provide consumers with content that could carry advertising. This meant that if the car could drive itself, the individual could spend time either watching content or playing with content, having a screen in the middle of the car and not having  to worry about where it was going.

As manufacturers jumped on the bandwagon of this, the narrative slightly changed and people started talking about safety.

Quite where it will end up is unclear, but what is clear is that  the trend in most modern cars is to turn them more into infotainment centers than vehicles than can be driven on highways and byways.

The rise in the use of technology in cars, both inside the engine and inside the vehicle itself, is enormous.

What this also means is that the security implications are huge as well.

There seem to be too likely scenarios that are likely to develop in the future. One is the rise of  autonomous cars that drive themselves with no human involvement  at all, the other scenario is where technology is used to automate a number of functions within the vehicle, largely around safety, but with a human driver still in  overall control of the vehicle.

Both scenarios are likely to coexist for a significant period of time, and both have fairly obvious cyber security implications.

The most common threat that is talked about is where someone manages to take control of the vehicle remotely by way of hacking into the cars various systems, and this is obviously a very real threat.

The other major threat, less often talked about, is where someone manages to access the cars computing system through the individuals smart phone, which will largely be used to control most of the on-board Internet access.

Once someone has managed to hack into a smart phone, then it’s open season for all the information contained therein, whether it relates to banking details, credit cards, passwords etc.

It is not clear yet how auto insurance or car insurance will manage and insure these risks.

One reason for this is simply that at the moment it is very difficult to quantify these risks, let alone assess who is responsible for them, and what can be done to minimise them. One thing is likely, which is that the risk of a cyber attack will undoubtedly increase the cost of an individual’s car insurance, whether it is an autonomous vehicle or not.

Agriculture and Energy Management

There are many areas in business and commerce where the internet of things can undoubtedly speed up production and efficiency, logistics and inventory control. There is likely to be a significant cost in terms of human labour, but history seems to suggest that companies don’t worry about this too much.

Two areas that are worth looking at briefly are those of agriculture and energy management. Agriculture especially because it relates to the food that we would eat, and the internet of things could dramatically alter the nature of farming and farming techniques.

Energy management is the other area, which has a direct link to smart homes and the use of energy in businesses and factories. One of the great selling points of the internet of things  is that it can make people’s homes more energy efficient, thus saving them money and conserving energy and fuel at the same time.

Energy management is already a crucial issue in society, even if not all politicians are open to doing what needs doing to effect climate change.

The internet of things has the potential  to manage all types of energy industries and infrastructures with a much greater degree of efficiency and safety. This also means that there is much greater scope for a cyber attack, either around the issue of nuclear plants or oil and gas installations etc.

Again the issue from a cyber security and insurance point of view is assessing the level of risk, understanding how best to minimise that risk, and arranging some type of cyber insurance that can effectively deal with the implications and reality of any type of cyber attack or disruption.

Smart Cities

There is also a lot of talk of smart cities. This is where cities use the collective data generated by all the internet of things within a city or town, generated by cars, sensors, Wi-Fi networks, peoples wearable’s etc as a way of planning urban development  in a more efficient and productive manner.

Again the security implications are significant, as more and more people generate more and more information and data, that is collected and analysed, then there is obviously a greater risk of that data being accessed and stolen, with real implications in terms of cyber security and identity theft.

What is Big Data and A.I?

The term big data refers largely to the massive amounts of information and data that has come with the growth of the internet, and with the growth of the mobile internet in particular.

To understand big data, you really need to understand databases, and the relationship between information and how it is used.

What is a Database

Imagine that you own a business which employs say 10 to 15 people, and when each one joined the company they will fill in an application form that details say  30 / 40 specific pieces of information about themselves.

This information would be their surname, christian names, date of birth, place of birth, previous jobs, start date,  qualifications, skills etc.

You would probably also want to record information such as their starting salary, additional payments, date of annual appraisals, pension contributions etc.

Once you have collected all the application forms for all the employees,  you would want to have a system where you could record it all and access any of the information whenever you needed it.

The easiest way probably would be to set up a spreadsheet, where you allocate a row to each individual employee, and fill out each piece of information in a particular cell going along the row.

Once you had done this for all employees, you would have 10 to 15 rows of information going a long spreadsheet,  and maybe 30 or 40 columns going down the spreadsheet which gave you the collected information for the specific areas for all the different employees.

That quite simply is a database.

Databases have been around pretty much since paper was invented, but have only really become significant with the advance of computational power, firstly with mainframes and lastly with PCs and the internet, and currently through cloud computing.

A database can be the information collected by a community organisation with three or four members,  or a massive multinational with hundreds of thousands of employees scattered across the globe.

The common factor in most databases is that you have very specific areas of information, which can be stored in very logical ways, itemised and analysed by virtue of  their field or category.

Growth of Big Data

Many experts claim that 90% of all the information available in the world today has been generated in the last two years (@2018). Whilst this is a difficult claim to verify, it is most likely true that somewhere near this figure is probably reasonably accurate. The growth in online information has come about through the massive expansion of the mobile Internet, and the different types of data that have been produced.

Big Data Types

When people talk about big data. what they are really referring to is the information that has been generated on smart phones, desktop computers, trading platforms, different learning machines. the various types of programs that have generated big data include blogs,  video sharing platforms, social networks, podcasts etc.

The sheer volume of these combined posts and tweets and webpages is almost too big to comprehend any meaningful level.

Big Data Analysis

Big data is not simply about the sheer volume of data and information that is generated at the moment (2018)  it is also about how this information can be stored used and analysed.

Aside from huge privacy issues, there are real questions about who has access to this information and what it can be used for.

Companies want to use it to be able to target individuals specifically for advertising and products, governments want to use it for a range of different purposes, some probably more devious than others.

The problem from an analysis point of view, is that the information generated by way of social networks and tweets etc does not fit into a traditional database as outlined above.

This has meant that the manipulation of data to generate extra focus  is virtually impossible. This means that other ways have had to be found to analyse information in order to be able to use it as other people see fit.

Internet of Things

What ever the accurate figure is as to the level of information that has been generated today in 2018, it is going to be dwarfed by the amount of information that will be generated over the next five or 10 years with the massive growth of the Internet of things, more clearly explained here.

The significance of the Internet of Things in relation to big data  is that it seems to be open season for virtually everything related to an individual’s life to be made wireless, so that companies and governments can get access to the information about how people live their lives.

This presents huge issues not only in terms of privacy, but also in terms of security. The more that people’s homes, cars, clothes, wearables, pets etc are connected to each other and to the Internet, the more at risk they are of some type of cybercrime, and the more need there is for some type of cyber security program and some type of cyber insurance to cover the risk.

The Four V’s of Big Data

Quite often reference is made to what are known as the Four V’s of big data. These are most commonly volume, variety, velocity and  voracity.

Volume refers to the sheer scale of data and information that is generated minute by minute across the globe.

Variety refers to the different types of data and information that are generated, from audio to video to written, with the advent of virtual worlds and 3-D world’s this could change significantly.

Velocity refers to the sheer speed at which this information is generated, and the problems in terms of analysing it that are relevant to that.

Veracity refers largely to the accuracy of the information or data that is produced. Given that companies and governments want to rely on this information in order to analyse it, there are real difficulties and problems in terms of verifying how accurate it is.


Hadoop  is an open source software system, run by Apache, that is effectively the current de facto way of analysing  big data.

What it essentially does is to break the data down into significantly smaller chunks, direct these chunks to a wide range of different computers which can analyse it efficiently, and then these computers send back the results to Hadoop, which collects it and generates the finished analysis.

Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence

Machine learning and artificial intelligence are often linked to big data, because it is recognised that it is virtually impossible for any human to effectively be able to analyse and make sense of the data has been produced.

This has given free rein to companies to produce some type of process of  artificial intelligence which can analyse and make sense of  big data. The implications from a societal point of view, and from a privacy point of view, are pretty terrifying to a lot of people, but there seems to be no appetite by any government or organisation to really try and put some sort of break on it.

The supposedly benefits of artificial intelligence are sold as being a legitimate reason for developing it at breakneck speed, with examples given such as Netflix and Amazon, and governments or cities ability to use data to improve public services within those cities.

These claims are at best probably highly dubious, and give credibility to the speed with which this whole process is taking place. The issue of security and privacy seems to be completely ignored or marginalised, with those who raise them being looked at or talked about as almost Luddite.

It may well take some major catastrophe in terms of cyber security to wake people up to the reality of what is happening, and the inherent risks associated with this breakneck speed approach to technological change and advancement.



What is the Internet of Things?

The Internet of Things is a collective term for hundreds of devices that can connect to the internet wirelessly, and possibly connect to each other as well.

Some of the most common questions asked are :

What is the Internet of Things?

What are Internet of Things Devices?

How Does the Internet of Things Work?

How do IoT Devices Communicate with Each Other?

What is a Smart Device?

Whilst wireless devices are not new, what is new is the growth, and anticipated growth, in such devices, which is massive and set to explode in the next five or ten years. Many of these devices, which cover all areas of modern life, are being rushed to market, often with inherent security weakness’s as a result.

The Internet of Things is perhaps best understood by the following scenario.

Driving home from work, your car automatically detects that you are approaching home. Your car automatically opens your garage doors, turns on the lighting in your home, turns on the central heating in your home, switches your oven on, starts playing your favourite music that it has taken from your playlists on your smartphone.

As you get into your garage, you see the groceries that have been automatically delivered to your home. This was done buy your refrigerator realising that it had run low on a number of items and had contacted your local grocery store.

The grocery store had updated your normal inventory, automatically debited the money from your bank account and delivered your groceries. To some people, this scenario sounds like a dream, to others like a nightmare.

In any event, the Internet of Things refers to a world Web watch everything is connected wirelessly, with a huge range of privacy and cyber security implications involved. To people who think the above scenario is a kind of fairytale, the reality is that it is happening at the moment.

It is being driven by the major tech companies in the same way that cell phones and smart phones were being driven by phone companies a few years ago.

The range of Internet connected devices and wearables and products is growing at a huge rate, and it is only a matter of time before the Internet of Things, a wirelessly connected world, becomes more of a reality.


The smart home has become the focus of where the Internet of things is seen as developing, see Amazon’s Echo, but is closely followed by the healthcare industry where wireless connection of devices is already gathering significant momentum. Other areas of industry and finance and commerce are moving forward a pace as well.

The issues concerning cyber security are enormous, and the need for some type of cyber insurance staggering. If everything that you own, buy or wear can be connected wirelessly to the Internet, then it can also be theoretically hacked, or have some other way of some type of malware installed in the system.

This means potentially an individuals home is at risk, their car is at risk, their body is at risk if they have something like a pacemaker fitted, their pet is at risk if it is microchiped, as well as all their day-to-day activities being at risk such as banking, shopping etc, especially if being done on a smart phone or mobile device.

The other way that the Internet of things impacts hugely on cyber security is simply that any employee or volunteer will be taking their connected life with them into their place of employment or work, meaning that anything on or about them that is wirelessly connected will then feed into the IT infrastructure of their place of work.

This means that any organisation or businesses IT systems and networks can immediately be exposed to a wide range of wearables and devices that the IT system administrators have no real control over.

This of itself poses significant risks in terms of a data breach, in addition to the unpredictability of whatever wearable or device an individual may unwittingly bring into their place of employment or work.


What is an Effective Cyber Security Policy?

Cyber security means different things to different people, and this can be one of the problems in creating a relatively good cyber security protection system within any organisation or business.

Some of the most common questions asked are :

What is  a Cyber Security attack?

What is a Security Network?

What is a Cyber Security Policy?

What is Cyber Crime?

What is  a Cyber Security Engineer?

In a number of organisations, staff employed or think of cyber security as being the realm of the IT guys. To them it means the risks of a network being hacked by someone and stealing data, and it’s down to the IT systems professionals to protect the network through firewalls etc.

Whilst this is certainly a large part of cyber security, the danger in this understanding is that it leaves out the day-to-day activities of people employed within the organisation. These account for the bulk of the activity through networks, and it is day-to-day activity that in many ways poses a much greater risk for many organisations.

This is not so much an issue around complacency, as around getting staff or people working/volunteering in any organisation or business to appreciate the real risks posed by doing any activities online, on any device, at any location.

Any organisation or business will be acutely aware how internet access has changed profoundly over last few years, not only in terms of broadband speeds, but in terms of how people access the internet through smartphones, tablets etc. There is also the strong drive/push by many organisations and government agencies to push people to use the Internet to do their daily chores.


It is worth recapping the various areas that people use the Internet for. People employed in any organisation or business likely to use the internet at that place the employment not only for company business, but also for their own day-to-day activities.

This invariably puts the company or organisation at risk of a data breach, and it is important to understand the dangers of this happening.


Email – email is still used by most people as a primary means of communication, both to work colleagues and to friends/family.

Whilst a company/organisation should have its own anti-virus and anti-malware software installed, there still a danger through unsolicited emails of introducing malware into the network. It is estimated that between 85 and 90% of all email sent is spam.

Surprisingly many people do click on spam links, partly because a huge amount of spam is directed at pharmacy medications and Viagra, which can sometimes be made to look convincingly professional.

The risks of clicking on any type of spam email, or opening any attachment from an unknown source or that it will introduce some type of malware into the organisation’s IT system, with potentially highly damaging effects.


Banking and finance – most of the major banks are increasingly persuading/forcing customers to do their banking online, which again raises real security issues, often through email.

Many of the scams people fall for stem from emails sent to them that purportedly come from their bank, or from their credit card company or organisation such as PayPal.

These scam emails will contain links within them encouraging individual to click on the link and either enter a password or confirm some other details. This type of scam invariably leads to disclosure of critical private information from individual, which usually results in monetary loss and/or the risk of identity theft.


The other huge area of potential risk is through social networking. People quite happily post a huge amount of private information on social network sites such as Facebook/Twitter/Google + etc, which presents a potential minefield in terms of privacy and identity theft.

The danger is that enough information could be gathered about an employee through that social networking profiles to allow hackers/criminals to gain access to a company’s network through posing as an individual connected to that organisation.

The other main areas of Internet usage tend to relate to areas such as online shopping, online gaming and gambling, downloading and distributing videos and file sharing. Whilst internet usage itself is not primarily dangerous, the issue within an organisation/business is that of cyber security.

All the above activities when carried out within an organisation or business environment can potentially expose the security of the network through unintentional personal carelessness.

The main way to protect the organisation/business against risks outlined above is really through education, and having policies and procedures in place which help staff and volunteers to remember the potential dangers that daily online activities can expose them to.


Changing passwords is a classic example. Every cyber security guide there is encourages people to change their password regularly, but most people don’t. If they do, they change it to something memorable so they don’t forget it.

Changing an attitude or culture within any organisation is difficult, but an area of website security it can be increasingly dangerous or financially damaging not to.


The other huge area of cyber security which is likely to become dominant in the next couple of years is what is referred to as the Internet of Things.

This refers to the ever increasing installation of wireless capable activity into and onto such everything that people own, eat, where, buy or in some other way have about them on their person or in their person in daily life.

The intent is to make people and their daily activities always connected to the Internet. This may take some time to achieve, but is being driven by all the major tech companies and all the major manufacturers.

This means in simple language that everything from clothes to watches, spectacles, shoes, refrigerators, ovens, speakers, televisions, cars, pacemakers, public transportation etc are becoming, or soon will be, wirelessly connected. To some people, this scenario is a dream, to others it is a nightmare.

However it is likely to become a reality of some description within the next few years. It is largely been driven by the belief that the more people are connected wirelessly to their lives, the more goods and services can be sold to them, and the more profitable large manufacturers and tech companies can come.

Whatever the ideological bent about the Internet of Things, perhaps the major issue is cyber security.

If peoples lives are literally connected with the world online, it will expose then and their possessions to extensive cyber security risks, both in terms of hacking and other risks as outlined above, and will require extensive rethinhing about different types of insurance and risk management.

What does Big Data and Predictive Analysis Really Mean ?

One of the problems with understanding Big Data, is that the term itself means different things to different people !

Some of the most common questions asked are :

 – What is Big Data all about?

 – What is the Big Data Market?

 – Why is it important to use Data?

 – What is Strong Data?

 – What si Big Data Used For

There are however two main areas of the term that most people recognise, and in reality cover the present reality. It is important to realize that we are really only just at the beginning of what Big Data means, what the implications are and its relationship to Artificial Intelligence.

The two main areas referred to above are the amount of information posted by and about people online, and the amount of information made available by governments, business’s etc. The scale of the amount of information that is posted online is almost too big to quantify.

What is important to realize is that this type of information, i.e. blog posts, social media posts, videos etc don’t fit into the traditional format of a database, and as such cannot be analysed in the same way. In relation to Big data, this mean new ways have to be found to both store and analyse this information.

In terms of governmental information, Big data is at its simplest just that. Huge amounts of data/information that are produced by governments, businesses and other organisations, some of which is made public, some of which is kept private.

The issues around big data are complex and varied. The primary concerns have to be those of privacy and cyber insurance/cyber security.

The sheer volume of big data, however you may come to define that term, means that a significant number of different people and different networks will be involved in processing and using the information. The privacy issues of big data are significant.

However much the information is anonamized, the implications regarding the data being hacked and personal information on individuals being gathered is significant. Identity theft is a significant cyber insurance and cyber security issue, yet one that remains under the radar for many people.

In most instances, cyber security has at its core the issue of a data breach occurring, and the implications thereof. Given the sheer fact that big data implies a huge increase in the volume of data being processed, both structured and unstructured data, the number of servers and networks involved also going to be significantly increased.

The logic therefore dictates that the risk of cyber security threats that would apply to one network within a company or organisation will be multiplied many times over.

Big Data – Government

Most governments in the West actively encourage the release of big data relating to many areas of government and life generally. This in part is because governments believe it shows an openness in their storage of information, which may be true or not, and because it allows an unprecedented level of predictive analysis of trends and behaviour in society generally.

The US government website has huge amounts of big data available relating to a wide range of areas, listed below.









Local Government




Public Safety

Science and research


Whether or not many businesses want to get involved with big data, often they do not really have a choice.  It is more an issue of how they analyse and use the data that is flowing through them, both to enhance their business and also to promote their industry.

The issue is really about how to make sense of the huge volumes of data in ways that benefit their company as opposed to being overwhelmed by it.

Predictive Analysis

Predictive analysis is the phrase that has given to the manipulation of data into formats and charts that make sense of the information in a way that is useful. Predictive analysis of the data as to add value to any organisation, government or business.

It has to help them understand potential future trends, both in their underlying business as well as consumer or citizen habits. Predictive Analysis will to a large extent also show likely developments in individuals lifestyles and behaviours, as part of a wider pattern.

Such analysis will inevitably mean more information being gathered from consumers/ordinary people in order that predictive analysis have some meaning. This inevitably raises even more privacy concerns and cyber security threats and need for cyber insurance planning.


The whole area of artificial intelligence is relatively new, but one being heavily invested in by the major tech companies. The aim behind a lot of artificial intelligence research is to allow it to automatically analyse and manipulate the data by itself, without the need for human intervention.

The growth of artificial intelligence and robotics is one that will profound effect on the issue of big data and how it is used. The cyber security implications need to be part of any process of form regarding the storage, usage and predictive analysis of the data by whoever is storing it.


Hadoop is an open source structure that can be used to store and manipulate sets of big data. Hadoop acts as a system that allows it to monitor clusters of computers to allocate types and amounts of different  jinformation in the most efficient manner possible.

What are Smart Home Systems?

Smart home systems refer to a variety of different and overlapping electrical and wireless systems that will enable a smart home or a smart house to function as a combined whole unit.

Central to understanding the nature of the systems is an understanding of the basis of what a smart home is and the various technologies that underpin it. The idea of a smart home has been around for a long time, in fact in many ways it is one of the oldest science fiction dreams that is on the verge of becoming a reality.

The typical scenario that shows the potential of a smart home normally involves someone driving home from work in their smart car. As they approach their home, their smart car communicates with their garage, and their garage doors open automatically as they arrive.

In addition, as they arrive home, their smart car will connect with their home, their lights will automatically come on within the home, their heating will come on and so will their appropriate kitchen devices, such as their oven waiting to pre-cook their dinner.

A further scenario includes their groceries being delivered at the exact moment they arrive home.

Smart home systems

This has happened because that smart refrigerator has realised that they are running low on certain items, has automatically contacted their local grocery store who have assembled the items and delivered them automatically to their home.

The grocery store new when to deliver them by accessing the drivers online calendar and working out the exact point when they would be home.

In addition the grocery store would automatically charge the amount of the groceries to the drivers credit card, which they have on account, and the amount on the credit card would be automatically debited from the drivers bank account through an online banking facility.

A few years ago, this scenario or these scenarios would have seemed far-fetched. Today they are the verge of becoming a reality for anyone who wants them. Quite literally billions of devices are being fitted with sensors that will allow them to connect to each other wirelessly over the internet, a scenario commonly referred to as the internet of things.

Smart home systems tend to be the various types of systems that would be used within a smart home such as an alarm system, a security system, a lighting control system, an audio system, a technology system and perhaps even a complete smart phone system.

In addition that will need to be a smart home management system both to coordinate all these activities, and to be able to manage them in the event of any one of them not working.  At the moment it is anticipated that the systems are will be controlled through an app or apps through someone’s smart phone, but this could well change in the future.

The push by the big tech companies to move to voice recognition technology seems to imply that this is their preferred mode of co-ordinating the mechanics of a smart home. What is perhaps being overlooked is the cyber security implications and risks inherent within any such system.

What is a Smart Home Security System?

Most people would probably give slightly different answer to the question of what is a home security system, let alone a smart home security system.

Any security system in a home is often thought of largely as an alarm system, possibly coupled nowadays with various types of CCTV cameras and other types of technology that can alert and detect intruders.

A home security system certainly can be that, but can also be a lot more.

The traditional method of securing a home has always been locks and mortar.

As time has gone on, technology has allowed more and more sophisticated devices to let people believe that home is safer.

A smart home, both now and in the future, is one where essentially all the systems and devices in the home can connect or talk to each other wirelessly, and can be centrally controlled either through a smart phone app or some type of voice recognition system.

Inevitably a smart home security system will consist of a combination of locks on windows and doors that can be controlled wirelessly, as well as a combination of burglar alarms, CCTV cameras and various other security devices.

Smart home security system

The proponents of a smart home security system will argue that the combination of all these factors, and the fact that they can be coordinated and controlled through a central wireless system makes the whole process of safeguarding and securing a home much easier.

That can certainly be debated, but to an extent misses the point.

While there certainly may be some advantages from a convenience view point of the ability to co-ordinate various connected devices, it does also leave someone’s home much more vulnerable to the possibility of being hacked.

The idea of cyber security and internet safety is one that most people are probably aware of, even if it is only the notion of computer viruses and computer malware.

Most people who have a PC or tablet in their home are likely to have some type of antivirus software installed, may or may not have a firewall activated and most likely don’t take the risk of being hacked to seriously.

The scenario changes significantly in the event of a smart home existing, and a smart home security system being the main or only line of defence against any intruder or unwelcome visitor.

There are already many anecdotal instances of baby monitor alarms being hacked by individuals who then use that device to say things and shout things that will upset or disturb the baby or child near the device.

Whilst these reports are certainly disturbing in themselves, they should also be disturbing to the manufacturers of these devices.

The vulnerability of these devices lies not only in the devices themselves, but in the continual upgrades they will need over their lifetime in order to keep them secure.

What is the nature of Cyber Crime?

The nature of cyber crime is so widespread that in some ways it is difficult to be really specific about it.

Any type of cybercrime will inevitably start with some type of data breach, which can either be digital or paper, and will most likely involve some type of theft of information from a business/organisation or individual.

The nature of cyber crime will to an extent depend upon both the individual committing the crime and the nature and type and scope of information that is stolen.

Often times simply the revealing of such information can have a devastating effect either on the individual or business, or in some cases political parties or the  reputations of a whole range of individuals or businesses.

In other cases cyber crime can quite literally be the  theft of money or various types of financial products.

This can be quite wide-ranging in terms of  credit card information, loan or mortgage applications, credit score reports or much more complex financial products used by banks and trading companies.


Cyber crime when committed against individuals through hacking a wireless network could invoice to be a breach of their privacy.

This is not to diminish the impact, but in the same way that if your house is burgled a big part of the damage is the sense of violation that an individual will feel aside from what is actually taken, a cybercrime where an individual has their privacy violated can equally be extremely upsetting.

Other examples of cybercrime can relate to a whole range of business or industrial activity.

The most obvious errors perhaps like to think that any business or company wants to keep  relatively private or secret, which could range from financial information, through to product design, through to bad news the company doesn’t want announced, through to theft of intellectual property etc

Cyber crime  can often also have a really ugly face when it is used to blackmail individuals or companies.

This is sometimes done through what is known as ransom ware  where information is stolen from a company, and a ransom demand in terms of money is issued for its return.

Sometimes the criminal  will essentially freeze the businesses entire IT systems and the mound a ransom for unfreezing them.


People often think of cyber threats as relating to government department or agency’s, or to political parties or to big corporations or businesses.

Whilst that in part is obviously true, the nature of cyber threats has grown hugely over the last few years, and most experts agree there will be a massive growth in the risk of cyber threats both to individuals and every type of business or organisation in the near future.

It is important to understand both the nature of cyber threats, and where they come from.

Whilst it is certainly true that the focus of my cyber threats relates to businesses and organisations, the growth of the Internet of things also means that in the next few years individuals own personal lives increasingly come under  threat of a cyber attack or a hack.

Focusing on cyber threats relating to a business organisation, the real risk for many people are a company’s information or knowledge database.

The information that any company or business has either about itself, its customers,  its supply chain, its competitors or its future plans can be of value to other people.


The nature of theft of information often doesn’t register with people because it doesn’t seem as horrific as say a violent crime that is physical in nature might do.

Cyber threats that relate to theft of any type of information from a company can often result in various types of cybercrime that can have devastating effects both on the business or organisation, and on any individual connected with it, either as an employee or a customer.

Information stolen from any company can be used either to defraud the company begin the process of perpetrating identity theft on individuals whose information has been stolen.

Depending upon the industry, financial information system can literally be a financial crime.

Other types of cyber threat often relate to some type of kidnapping and ransom demand.

This is where a cyber criminal essentially steals information from a  company and demands a ransom for its return,often known nowadays as some type of ransom ware.

The other type of cyber threat that is very real for a  lots of businesses is where someone manages to pack and individuals computer or the complete system and essentially freeze the entire network. They then demand a ransom payment to freeze the system and restore it back to some level of  normality or integrity

What is the Best Computer Security

cyber insurance    cyber insurance    cyber insurance    cyber insurance

When people talk about computer security nowadays, they are inevitably referring to cyber security or the real threats that relate to any type of computer wherever it is used.

Most people still think of computers as being essentially desktop computers, although that is and what has been something of a myth.

Today’s smart phones are very much powerful computers in their own right, although people still think of them as phones.

In a way a microwave is a computer, but people do not think of it as being particularly vulnerable to any type of cyber security.

What is important to realise perhaps is that the growth of the Internet of things is going to rapidly change everything that individuals and businesses have and do in their day-to-day work and personal lives.

This means that in fact, an individual’s microwave although refrigerator will become hackable as they will be wirelessly connected to the Internet, and thereby potentially open to some type of Data breach.

People may laugh at the idea of a refrigerator being hackable, as it doesn’t seem any particularly apparent risk involved therein.


What is really important that people realise that the nature of the Internet of things and of a smart home, along with smart phones, smart cars, online banking etc all adds up to a huge number of different layers of overlapping technologies that are all potentially at risk of some type of cyber attack.

It is key to understanding the risks involved, to understand that the term computer has changed and will change hugely over the next few years. Thinking of a baby monitor as a computer is perhaps a heart leap some people.

There have been recent reports of  baby monitors being hacked by individuals, who then talk through the baby monitors at the baby, which is overseeing a hugely distressing and concerning  environment both for the baby and for the family concerned.

Computer security is still very much about things like firewalls and security of systems, along with common sense precautions around opening email attachments, or downloading and installing dodgy software.

However, it has become much more than that, and the speed with which the Internet of things is set to overtake society in the next five years means that the nature of computer security will change drastically, and really needs a complete rethink in terms of individuals attitudes.


Having a cyber security framework is often referred to as some type of cyber governance, and in many ways its value lies in the fact that there is some type of framework at all.

It is rather like the old saying that it is better to have a plan than  no plan at all, although having a bad plan might counter that argument.

The value of a cyber security framework is having a structure that addresses the fundamental issues relating to cyber crime and cyber security, and the need some type of cyber insurance either self managed through an insurance company.

The value of a framework of any type is that it is essentially a structure, should have a number of components which mean that the structure itself addresses the problems in an institutional way rather than simply relying on luck or judgement, or more normally one or two employees who are really up to speed with what needs doing.


The chief component perhaps of a cyber security framework is to have it recognised as being at the core of any individual or businesses corporate framework.

This means that it should be instigated at the most senior level of board or management structures, and the cyber security framework should involve some level everyone at the most senior level.

This obviously depends upon the size and nature of the business or organisation.

What is also crucial is to have a lead member of the business, ideally at board level or equivalent, who has social stability for the cyber security framework, both in terms of making sure that such a framework exists, and implementing processes to make sure it is effective.

That simply is about accountability and designated responsibility, which in a way is very different to any other aspect of any business or organisation.

What is different perhaps is a many people don’t take sides security as seriously as  they should, and as such to allocate that level of possibility or accountability to it.

Having a lead individual who can oversee a cyber security framework gives them the duty to put a structure in place that can both identify the risks to the individual or organisation, and do whatever they can to minimise or suppress those risks.

Such a cyber security framework or structure essentially involves two main elements, those of systems and staff.

The nature of both will vary considerably depending upon the size and nature of the business or organisation involved, but what is important is the sentence for as at the top of the framework.

That individuals are given specific tasks or responsibilities specific to cyber security, and there’s a level of accountability does not punitive in relation to their roles.

Having a framework that is flexible in terms of accountability and responsibility is crucial so that it doesn’t become institutionalised in its own right.

At the same time the nature of site security means having to trust a significant number of individuals to do their job properly, and needs to be clear guidance and direction as to how that can be done.



Looking for a cyber security course tends to throw up to slight the extreme and different ends of the spectrum.

The majority of cyber security courses or offered as MA’s  or MSc’s and are by their very nature by the additional two or an extension of some type of message of science degree.

They tend to deal with very technical areas of cyber security, and obviously geared to a very specific type of analyst or individual seeking a career in cyber security.

The other type of cyber security course tends to be offered to people at school, or people apparently school to give them some type of basics about how the Internet and mobile networking effectively works, and what risks and challenges inherent within the system.

Both these areas of cyber security courses  have their place, but it does leave a huge gap between for anyone who is interested in what the real risks of cyber security are, and what an individual or business can do to protect themselves against such risks.


A lot of the challenge for anyone involved in the cyber security world is to make it really relevant to individuals and businesses of all sizes before it is too late and data breaches or identity theft become a more common part of everyday life.

The growth of the Internet of things is set to explode in the next few years, and risks in terms of wireless networking and the potential for being hacked will become a real part of every individual’s day-to-day life.

The other challenge concerning the cyber security world is to make people aware of the real risks involved, without making people think it is simply some part of an operation fear type of movement, either by government or interested companies, because the nature of cybercrime and cyber security is by it’s very nature fairly invisible.

Part of the way forward is undoubtedly to education, and to having various types of cyber security courses that are available in the workplace and online for individuals to have a look at. It is likely, that the majority of people will only take cyber security and the threat of cyber crime  more literally when the consequence of it have become more widespread, and more people have become affected.

Education can change that, and needs to be done quickly as the growth of the Internet and the scale of the cyber threats relate to it increases at speeds that people simply do not relate to on a day-to-day basis.


Information security is at the heart of cyber security and the risk of cyber crime, and the huge growth of information available online, both private and commercial, is set to intensify massively over the next  few years.

Some people will apply this to the term big data, and whilst big data is a huge issue in its own right because at the moment seem to be targeted to certain areas of industry and commerce, but the sense of how to protect and interpret the data poses huge challenges in its own right.

Not simply in terms of information security, but in terms of how the information can be kept safe in the context of interpreting it, and using various forms of artificial intelligence and a supply chain of subcontractors to do such interpretation.

Information security relates fundamentally to the various types of cybercrime  that are behind the majority of data breaches and attempts to infiltrate cyberspace and individuals  networks.

Sometimes this is a direct attempt to steal intellectual property from an individual or a business,  and such attempts if successful can have a devastating effect on that business or individual concerned.


Other times the theft or attempted theft of information relates to commercially sensitive data.

This can take hundreds of different forms, relating to and individuals or businesses plans for the future, can relate to key negotiating decisions regarding trade and commerce or working arrangements with other major firms or their own supply chain.

Information security can also relate to attempts to access government and defence related information.

This can sometimes be done by a hostile government, or agents of such a regime. Also these accounts can be done by criminals acting on behalf, although sometimes at an arms length, from various governments.

The other threat to government and industry of any type is simply to disrupt the effectiveness and day-to-day workings.

There is a serious risk to information security by targeting areas that are vulnerable in terms of people’s day-to-day reliance on them, and such weakening their systems and the sense of trust or integrity in their day-to-day working.

Information security also has a huge role in terms of businesses and organisation keeping customers information safe and secure.

This can relate to fundamental information on individual concerning the name, date of birth, place of birth etc.

This type of information is even more crucial because it cannot be changed, unlike a credit card, and one such information is taken can be used for identity theft purposes which can have a devastating effect on the individual concerned.


One of the problems for Internet security, is that too many people it means a combination of security measures taken by an IT team to make sure that hardware and software systems are up-to-date, and not clicking on any dodgy emails that you are not sure who they are from.

Whilst both of the above are true to an extent, the growth of the Internet and its reach into our lives has grown massively over the last few years, and is set to intensify levels that we cannot even imagine over the next five or 10 years.

What this means in terms of Internet security, both mobile and fixed, is that there has to be understanding of the real threats of cyber security, where the threats come from, what their purpose is, who is behind the threats and what can be done to minimise or eradicate them.

One of the other problems with Internet security is at people or sink that these things happen to other people, in this case these things meaning some type of data breach or computer system infection.


Getting people to be aware that these risks are real, and that they affect individuals in their own lives as well as every type of business and organisation is a massive task, and one that in many ways has to begin within a business or organisation itself.

The growth of the Internet of things is going to radically change how individuals and businesses live and to work with each other.

It will mean potentially that puts everything in every individual’s life, both personal and work will in some way be connected to the Internet, and as such vulnerable to some type of cyber attack.

The basics of Internet security or in some ways well-known, but also need to be continually repeated and updated in order to minimise the risk of any type of cyber attack data breach.

Simple things like changing passwords, and having effective passwords  that can’t be broken can make a massive difference, but are notoriously difficult to get people to take seriously.

It is a bit simpler stick to Senate education is the best course, but invariably it is.

A number of websites force people to change their passwords to specific standards, and irritating though it is, it will undoubtedly help.

Other areas such as fingerprint recognition and eye movement recognition also possible options for the future.

Public Liability Insurance and Cyber Security

Sometimes the very words Public liability Insurance make anyone involved in any business or organisation slightly nervous.

Many people think they don’t need any public liability insurance unless they are simply something like an events company, or where the nature of their business means they might potentially  have some contact with the public, and in certain cases need to have public liability insurance.

The issue of what type of business or company needs public liability insurance  will probably depend on who is paying for it, and whether or not they consider it a risk that they are willing to bear themselves, or whether they had been burned in the past and understand the need some type of insurance.

It is equally true that a number of  insurance companies and insurance brokers  will sell the need for public liability insurance when it is questionable whether it is really needed But all types of insurance that are not legally mandated will be taken out by individuals or businesses either because they have had a loss in the past, or they sufficiently open to recognise the need for it.

Where the issue of public liability insurance becomes much more relevant in some ways is the whole area of cyber security and cyber risk.

Any individual or business which holds information about themselves or any member of the public is potentially at risk of a data breach, which could result in some type of cybercrime involving the theft of information relative to a wide range of different individuals.


The nature of cybercrime and the need for some type of cyber liability insurance has mushroomed in the last few years, and is likely to grace the in the next few What is perhaps important to realise is that a significant number of insurance companies recognise the risk of cybercrime and the issue of cyber security generally, and specifically exclude it from different types of insurance policies.

These may well include public liability insurance policies, which an organisation or business may believe gives them the cover they need in the event of some type of data breach of cyber crime.

There is a need for businesses and organisations of all sizes to recognise the real risks and threats of cybercrime and cyber security, and to have specific clarification whether or not their existing public liability insurance policies, or domestic household policies, or any other type of commercial liability insurance by that includes or excludes cyber insurance risks.

If in any doubt, the individual or business should take out a specific cyber insurance policy, which may well become a much more normal feature of the insurance world in the next few years, as insurance companies move to limit their potential liability under existing types of commercial liability insurance policies. T


An online social media post can lead to serious consequences. Now kids as young as seven years old are learning what they should and shouldn’t post online.

  • Garfield’s Cyber Safety Adventures
  • Teaches kids as young as 7 what they can post online

Rachel Pommer is in just the third grade, and she’s already come face to face with dangers online.

“You can talk on games I’ve played in the past, and I didn’t see very nice things, so I decided to tell my parents,” said Rachel Pommer, a third grader at St. Margaret Mary Catholic School.

Luckily Pommer recognized something was wrong.

She and other students at St. Margaret Mary Catholic School are learning how to keep themselves safe by learning what not to do online.

Full story. click here

Main site, click here

What is a Cyber Security Definition?

A cyber security definition has some value in terms of giving clarity to a potential problem that is in part understood by people in businesses and organisations, but has historically been to a large extent ignored by many.

This ignoring of cyber security has often been in the same mindset as people ignoring the need for a disaster recovery plan and is in many ways basic human nature.

People always believe that bad things happen to other people rather than themselves, and insurance has grown out of the proof in many ways that this mythology can be very costly.

Cyber security has been around since the growth of the internet, and many people are aware of the nature of threats such as viruses, trojan horses and worms.

Most people and most businesses are likely have some type of anti-virus protection system installed on the network or individual PC.

Whilst these are effective in many ways, the growing threat of cyber security has changed significantly over the last few years, and is likely to become even more dominant in the future.


Cyber security at the moment is often thought of as being relevant to large organisations and businesses.

The growth of the internet, the accessibility of the internet through mobile devices and the growth of the internet of things is likely to revolutionise the way people and devices communicate with each other.

This is going to raise cyber security issues to a level that is at the moment unthought of.

A cyber security definition could simply be referred to as a data breach.

This is commonly associated with some type of  authorised hacking of information, leading to a ransom demand or freezing or stealing of such information.

Such a data breach and often be brought about through some type of infection of the network, either through viruses as already mentioned, or through people opening email attachments etc.

A cyber security definition is most helpful in many ways when it involves everyone  involved in a business or organisation understanding that cyber threats are very real, and can be very cleverly disguised in normal day-to-day activity.

Also making everyone in the organisation or business aware that the  responsibility for cyber security rests with everyone in that organisation not simply the people responsible for the IT systems.

The Internet of things is going to rapidly increase the number and design of mobile devices that people will have access to both at home and at work.

This will mean that a companies IT systems can effectively be easily reached by individuals using that entices to access company information work-related documents.

The need to manage this carefully will be significant, and will play an increasingly important part in people understanding the nature of  cyber security and cyber risk more generally.

How to develop a Cyber Insurance Plan

A cyber insurance plan is a key element of survival almost, for any individual or organisation who uses the internet as part of their business or personal life.

Such a plan can literally involve cyber insurance, either as a specific cyber insurance policy, or as part of a liability policy such as product liability or e and o policy, or as part of their home insurance.

Most of the focus nowadays is on businesses and organisations and their need some type of cyber insurance, given the huge rise in risk of a data breach and the implications for the organisation,  themselves and any individuals affected by such a breach.

Cyber insurance is both about a specific cyber insurance policy, and about the preventative risk management approach that an individual or a company needs to do.

This is necessary in order both to prevent any data breach in the first place, and be placed to deal with the immediacy of a breach and its implications if it should happen.

For individuals, the growth of the internet and specifically the growth of the internet of things means that over the next two years their lives are going to be wedded to their various devices at home and at work being able to speak to each other.


This means that the risk of a data breach of some sort is greatly magnified, and individuals will need to be aware of their own potential risk and liability scenarios.

Whether these risks are covered under their home insurance or some other type of insurance is unclear at the moment, but it is likely that some type of cyber insurance policy will be needed to mitigate and manage such risks.

For businesses and organisations of whatever size, the risk of a data breach and the cyber risks associated with such a breach are immediate and clear.

There is an overwhelming need for most organisations to have in place a clear plan that reflects both a preventative approach and an incident management approach, along with a specified disaster recovery plan.

The cyber insurance plan needs to focus both on the financial indemnity element of the insurance as would a normal insurance policy, but also very much on the need for an incident management insurance process.

The management of the breach needs to be dealt with in several different ways, and the immediacy of being able to deal with it is of paramount importance.

Some insurance companies offer this incident management process as part of the insurance policy.

If insurers do not, then it’s crucial that the organisation has in place its own management team who can coordinate the various elements of dealing with the breach themselves.